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Biographie An Introduction To Tundishes


Modern metal production simply wouldn’t work without tundishes, where production would be inefficient and more costly. Through the use of refractory-lined tundishes, the process of metal casting is greatly enhanced. The core components of tundish linings such as chromite and anthracite are available from African Pegmatite - the preferred industrial provider for a wealth of refractories and minerals for the foundry industry. A tundish is a device used in the casting of metals. It is any open-topped vessel with holes in the bottom to deliver molten metal at a controlled rate into casting moulds. It is often used between smelting and casting to ensure a consistent and regulated flow, whilst enabling the switchover of casting moulds if needed. Tundishes are often made of steel and are lined with some kind of liner, which is always a refractory material, often in brick form. Such refractory materials employed as tundish linings, or of components in tundish linings, include anthracite, chromite and glass powders amongst others. Some 7% of all refractory materials in Europe are used for tundishes and in continuous casting(1,2), with a respectable 5% of this going to landfill after use(3). Tundishes are closely related to ladles, which are used to transport molten metal from the furnace to the tundish ahead of casting. These large, refractory lined buckets are operationally very similar to tundishes and thus the principles for tundish lining design and materials largely apply to ladles as well. Overall, it can be said that an ideal tundish lining will have the following qualities:



Ability to withstand temperatures in excess of 1,500 °C


Maintenance of its shape at high temperatures


Resistance to attack by slag



Have no chemical or physical interaction with the molten metal








Advantages of Tundish Nozzle


Tundish nozzles are basically used for controlling the flow of steel from the Tundish to the Continuous Casting equipment. Different kind of tundish nozzles include, Alumina, Alumina Carbon, Zirconia Alumina Nozzles, which are manufactured for single to multiple casting application. The tundish is a refractory container, and the molten steel poured from the ladle is distributed to each mold through the tundish metering nozzle.The quality and life of the tundish nozzle directly affect the purity of steel before entering into mold. Tundish nozzle is divided into two types: argon blowing and non-argon blowing. The tundish nozzle is embedded in the seat brick at the bottom of the tundish and used in conjunction with the stopper. The tundish nozzle is mainly used to adjust the flow of molten steel entering the mold, and argon can be blown through the inner wall to prevent the nozzle from being blocked. The material of the tundish nozzle is selected according to the steel type to be poured. When casting general carbon steel, a mullite nozzle containing 70~75% Al2O3 can be used. Magnesium oxide or zirconium oxide nozzles can be used when pouring free-cutting steel. When casting high-manganese steel, high-aluminum graphite or zirconia nozzles can be used. Depending on the type of cast steel, there are magnesia, zirconia, and high-aluminum graphite or zirconia. It is one of the important smelting methods to blow inert gas into molten steel through the tundish nozzle. Therefore, tundish nozzle is widely used.


1. Sliding quickly, accurately, without bias, leaking steel
2. Good corrosion resistance, no obvious diameter expansion, long service life, no bias flow, scattered flow phenomenon;
3. Good thermal shock performance



4. Strong anti-erosion performance


Tundish nozzle is an important component of continuous casting. Through the tundish nozzle, the molten steel flows from the tundish into the crystallizer. During this process, the outlet aperture will be eroded and widened, the amount of molten steel per unit of time increases and the surface of molten steel in the crystallizer rises, which requires increasing casting speed to digest the excess molten steel.







The Properties and Uses of Silicon Metal



Silicon metal is a grey and lustrous semi-conductive metal that is used to manufacture steel, solar cells, and microchips. Silicon is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust (behind only oxygen) and the eighth-most common element in the universe. Nearly 30 percent of the weight of the earth's crust can be attributed to silicon. Silicon metal is mainly used by the chemical industry in the production of silicon compounds and by semiconductors. aluminum manufacturers to improve the useful properties of aluminum, as well as in the manufacture of silicon wafers used in photovoltaic solar cells and electronic. While roughly ten million metric tonnes of ferrosilicon and silicon metal are refined each year, the majority of silicon used commercially is actually in the form of silicon minerals, which are used in the manufacture of everything from cement, mortars, and ceramics, to glass and polymers. Ferrosilicon, as noted, is the most commonly used form of metallic silicon. Since its first use around 150 years ago, ferrosilicon has remained an important deoxidizing agent in the production of carbon and stainless steel. Today, steel smelting remains the largest consumer of ferrosilicon. Ferrosilicon has a number of uses beyond steelmaking, though. It is a pre-alloy in the production of magnesium ferrosilicon, a nodulizer used to produce ductile iron, as well as during the Pidgeon process for refining high purity magnesium. Ferrosilicon can also be used to make heat and corrosion resistant ferrous silicon alloys as well as silicon steel, which is used in the manufacture of electro-motors and transformer cores.






How the slag ball mill turns slag into treasure ?


As a kind of metallurgical waste, slag will not only pollute the environment, but also waste resources. After being processed by ball mill, slag can be turned into fine slag powder and used as raw material for concrete and cement, which effectively improves the economic utilization value. This paper will introduce the slag ball mill in detail from three aspects: processing principle, parameters and characteristics and market price.What equipment can process slag into slag powder to turn waste into treasure? Slag ball mill has this magic. It is a "artifact" that can turn slag into slag powder. It can grind slag to 0.074mm-0.89mm. The working principle of slag ball mill is the same as that of ordinary ball mill, which depends on the steel ball medium in the cylinder to grind the materials. When the slag enters the cylinder from the feed end, the centrifugal force generated by the rotation of the cylinder will bring the steel ball to a certain height. The high steel ball falls down in a parabolic trajectory due to gravity and collides with the slag with great impact force. In addition, the revolution and rotation around the axis in the cylinder will impact, squeeze and grind the slag to achieve the purpose of grinding the slag, Then, the qualified micro powder slag is discharged through the discharge grate to complete the grinding operation. The output of the ball mill is 0.65t/h-615t/h, the feed particle size is less than 20mm, the body weight is between 5.85t and 525T, the motor power is 18.5kw-4500kw, and the working speed is between 13.8r/min-38r/min. For the parameters of slag ball mill, please click "ball mill parameters". Here are some advantages of slag ball:


1. The diameter of the cylinder is optimized, the volume of the cylinder is increased, and the material handling capacity per unit time is improved. The steel balls with different sizes in the cylinder will not produce inertial impact, run smoothly and prolong the service life of the equipment.


2. The slag ball mill can operate continuously for 24 hours, with strong continuity and uniform cylinder speed. It can grind the internal materials evenly, improve the output and efficiency, and can meet the production needs of large, medium and small enterprises.


3. The coincidence degree between various parts is high. The sliding bearing is replaced by rolling bearing, which reduces friction, high power conversion, reduces power consumption, and makes the equipment easier to start.






What Is The Use Of Carburizer?


In order to prevent the decrease of carbon content in steel products during steelmaking, carburizers are usually added to solve this problem. But what are the types of carburizers and what are their specific uses?


What is a carburizer Carburizing agent is the product of increasing carbon (c). In the process of steelmaking, due to various factors, the carbon content in molten steel decreases, which affects the quality of finished steel. Therefore, steel mills often buy carburizing agent in order to deal with the carbon decline in steelmaking. There are many common types of carburizers, including graphite carburizers, petroleum coke carburizers and casting carburizers, which are mainly used in steel-making and casting industries.


Carburizers can be roughly divided into the following types.


Application of graphite carburizing agent:




Graphite carbon can improve the metallographic structure of castings




Graphite carbon can be used to rapidly form graphite core from cast iron




Graphite carbon can also shorten the time of carbon increase and improve the effect of carbon increase




Carburizing agent is widely used in steel-making, casting, smelting and other industries. It has the advantages of high mechanical properties and can better meet the technical requirements of production. In the actual steel-making process, there are many advantages of carburizing agent, which can greatly shorten the carburizing time, improve the carburizing effect of steel products, increase the input of scrap steel, and make rational and effective use of existing capital It has the advantages of low cost, low cost and so on. 
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